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A number of techniques are used in water conservation to lessen how much freshwater we consume. Water conservation can be accomplished in a variety of ways, such as through water monitoring, conservation-friendly design codes, and average people using less water at home. There are several reasons why effective water management is crucial. Some of the motives are as follows:

1. One resource is water. Snow, groundwater, and surface water runoff are the sources of the planet's present water supply. These resources, which have been exploited for thousands of years and are now endangered by overdevelopment, pollution, and global warming, provide this supply. Freshwater makes up only 3% of the total amount of water on Earth, and only 5% of it is fit for human consumption. Ocean saltwater must be desalinated before it can be used, which is an expensive operation that uses a lot of energy.

2. Conservation helps with drought relief. Drought is a periodic lack of adequate rainfall or snowfall that results in a water deficit in dry areas like deserts. Any community can experience water shortages, but they can be made to feel less severe by conserving water.

3. Use of water depletes other resources. Bringing water into your home from on-site sources demands energy. When you use hot water, you use more energy because heating requires a lot of energy. Utilizing less hot and cold water can help you save water and energy while reducing energy pollution, which is bad for the environment.

Environmental Water Conservation Techniques
Large-scale water conservation can be implemented on the institutional and social levels to drastically alter the amount of clean water we have. Government, industry, and agriculture can all take the following actions to protect this natural resource:

-Adapting to contemporary watering techniques. Traditional irrigation techniques waste thousands of gallons of water per year, but changing agricultural practises to use water-efficient technologies like drip irrigation, which disperses little amounts of water across broad regions and drips down to plant roots, can assist. By lowering runoff, waste, and evaporation, current irrigation techniques for farming and agriculture can conserve water.

- Expanding the area of forests. Groundwater can be preserved and rainfall losses due to evaporation can be decreased by increasing forest cover by planting trees and halting deforestation. Since trees can withstand droughts better than most crops, adding more of them to riverbanks and reservoirs can help safeguard our water supplies from contamination or loss.

- Laws governing water conservation. Protecting our water supply is crucial because only 0.5 percent of the freshwater on Earth is potable. Legislation can be passed by governmental organisations like the EPA (or Environmental Protection Association) to prevent companies from disposing of garbage in priceless water supplies, which can contaminate groundwater and diminish the amount that is accessible for use. They can also put in place initiatives to encourage firms to disclose their water footprints more openly. By actively saving and defending our consumable water, our institutions can reduce the amount of water lost and wasted annually due to human activity.

- Water distribution changes- By gathering and dispersing that water to regions suffering from drought or a lack of rainfall, irrigation infrastructure such as canals and pipes can assist make use of extra water storage. Redistributing water reduces waste while also getting much-needed water to where it is most required.
- Better rewards- Government-funded agricultural subsidies are frequently given to farmers who grow corn not for human consumption but for animal feed or biofuel. As a result, the market size of the food business is disproportionate, which has an impact on all product pricing.

By enacting water conservation rules that give more incentives for agricultural operations that produce food, farmers may be given the resources they need to both afford and put into practise the required water conservation measures.

7 Tips for Water Conservation at Home
There are numerous ways for people to use less water. Learn how to reduce your daily water consumption in the following paragraphs.
1. Replace all of your appliances-Many older appliances consume a lot more water than contemporary ones that are water-efficient and water-saving. Consider alternatives that use less water, such as dual-flush toilets or low-flow showerheads, by researching the toilets, faucets, showerheads, dishwashers, and clothes washers in your home.
2. Take shorter showers- Your showerhead can use up to ten gallons of water for every minute spent in the shower. To save water while you're showering, try limiting the amount of time you spend in the shower each day to no more than five minutes or turning off the water between rinses.
3. If at all possible, run the dishwasher-Contrary to popular belief, hand washing dishes often uses more water than using the dishwasher. There are ways to save water while washing dishes if you don't have a dishwater. When washing dishes, simply shut off the water rather than letting it run.
4. Disposal is not necessary- Water is extensively used by garbage disposal systems. To conserve water and lessen food waste, throw food scraps into a compost pile as opposed to flushing them down the drain.
5. When cleaning your teeth, turn off the water- It is a waste of water to turn on the faucet while brushing your teeth. When brushing your teeth, turn the faucet off to save water.
6. Keep drinking water chilled- Running the water until it is cold is a common practise for people who drink tap water straight from the faucet, although doing so wastes a lot of water. Instead of consuming cold water straight from the faucet, fill up pitchers or reusable bottles with warm sink water and keep them in the refrigerator so they can cool without draining water.
7. Look for dripping faucets- Up to 20 gallons of water per day can be lost due to leaky faucets. If you are aware that a faucet drips, fix or replace it right away to conserve water (and your utility budget). Even if you don't believe your faucets are leaking, make sure by checking them sometimes. When there is no water use at home for two hours, check your water metre to see if there is a leak. You have a leak if the amount of water used fluctuates. Water waste can be prevented by ensuring the effectiveness of your water systems.

Sriparna Mukherjee
Amity University, Kolkata


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